This study was designed to make a systematic review and meta-analysis on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect of cinnamon on blood pressure (BP).A systematic computerized literature search of PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar databases were conducted up to August 2019. All RCTs using cinnamon supplements in adults were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis.Out of 927 records, 8 trials that enrolled 582 participants included. The pooled effect size showed that SBP did not change following cinnamon supplementation. (WMD: -0.61mmHg; 95% CI: -1.36, 0.14, P= 0.111). Also cinnamon supplementation in long-duration (≥ 8weeks) had a significant effect on SBP (WMD: -1.25 mmHg; 95% CI: -2.22, -0.28, P= 0.012). Pooled analysis showed that cinnamon had a significant effect on DBP (WMD: -0.93mmHg, 95% CI: -1.55 to -0.32, P= 0.003). In addition, results from both duration subsets and high dose (>1500 mg/day) of cinnamon supplementation were significant.Our findings revealed that cinnamon supplementation has favorable effects on DBP although results about SBP were not the same. Nonetheless, further studies are required.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality, morbidity, and financial losses and has a high prevalence across the world. Several studies have investigated the association between various CVD types with zinc and copper status as the essential minerals for the human body, proposing contradictory and similar results. This narrative review aimed to survey the correlations between zinc and copper status in the human body and some risk factors of CVD, as well as the assessment methods of zinc and copper status in the human body. According to the reviewed articles, zinc and copper deficiency may increase the risk of coronary heart disease, valvular regurgitation, and myocardial lesions, cardiac hypertrophy. Furthermore, it could lead to the expanded mitochondrial compartments of the heart, acute and chronic heart failure, and elevation of inflammation markers, such as interleukin-1 (IL-1) and IL-6. Two methods are primarily used for the assessment of zinc and copper in the human body, including the direct method (measurement of their concentrations) and indirect method (determining the activity of zinc- and copper-containing enzymes). Both these methods are considered reliable for the assessment of the zinc and copper levels in healthy individuals. Serum or plasma levels of these elements are also commonly used for the assessment of the correlation between the zinc and copper status and CVD. But, which one is a more accurate indicator in relation to CVD is not yet clear, therefore further studies are required in this field.
This study evaluated the effect of incorporating silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) into conventional orthodontic adhesive on its antibacterial activity and the shear bond strength (SBS) to stainless steel orthodontic brackets. Thirty-four extracted premolars were randomly allocated into two groups (
Introduction. Wortmannin (WTN) is a steroid metabolite that inhibits phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and other signaling pathways. Structurally, the WTN consists of a cyclopentanophenanthrene-like structure with several oxygen-rich moieties which have the potential to interact with deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules. Methods. We aim to evaluate the WTN and calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) interaction with molecular docking using the AutoDock 4.2 software. UV and fluorescence spectroscopy and viscosity techniques were performed to confirm the in silico analysis. Results. Molecular docking showed that the WTN interacted with ct-DNA via hydrogen bonds at guanine-rich sequences. The number of hydrogen bonds between the WTN and DNA was 1-2 bonds (average 1.2) per WTN molecule. The in silico binding constant was 2 × 103 M-1. UV spectroscopy showed that the WTN induced a hyperchromic feature without wavelength shifting. The WTN and DNA interaction led to quenching of DNA-emitted fluorescence. The different concentrations of WTN had no effect on DNA viscosity. Taken together, our results demonstrated WTN interacts with DNA in the nonintercalating mode, which is considered as a new mechanism of action. Conclusion. These results suggest that the WTN may exert its biological effects, at least in part, via interaction with DNA. © 2019 Shiva Mehran et al.
In this study, a molecular dynamics (MD) study has been performed on composition and temperature dependences of mechanical properties of CdTe1-xSex (x = 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75) nanowires with a diameter of 6.93 nm. The simulation results show that CdTe0.75Se0.25 nanowire seems to be more ductile, whereas CdTe0.25Se0.75 nanowire seems to be more brittle at 1 K. Moreover, the temperature and composition exert significant effects on the mechanical properties of CdTeSe nanowires under stretching. We conclude that the dominancy of Se atoms yields a higher stability and strength at the lower temperature of 1 K, whilst it is the same for the nanowires with both higher Te and Se contents at the higher temperature of 300 K. The radial distribution functions (RDFs) have also been calculated for the CdTeSe nanowires based on the pair separation distance at 1 and 300 K. © 2019 World Scientific Publishing Company.
This article proposes a compact multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) antenna with the electromagnetic band gap (EBG) structures for mobile terminals. The proposed MIMO antenna is composed of two radiation patches in which diagonal and folded microstrip lines are utilized to control the frequency bands. The radiation patch, one EBG structure and a rectangular-shaped ground plane are etched on both sides of the antenna. The EBG structures have been employed for reducing the mutual coupling between the antenna elements. As a result of the effect of these structures, the mutual coupling between the two elements is reduced by less than −30 dB. The proposed antenna is implemented on an FR4 substrate with dimensions 20 × 10 × 1 mm3. According to measured results, frequency ranges of 2.2 to 3.6 GHz and 5.1 to 5.9 GHz with S11 < −10 dB and also 3.7 to 5 GHz and 8 to 12 GHz with S22 < −10 dB have been obtained. Moreover, measured S12 and S21 with values of less than −30 dB for both Ports have been realized. Additionally, the envelope correlation and radiation efficiency of the purposed antenna are less than 0.09 and more than 82%, respectively. © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Workload prediction is one of the important parts of proactive resource management and auto-scaling in cloud computing. Accurate prediction of workload in cloud computing is of high importance for improving cloud performance, mitigate energy consumptions, meeting the required quality of service (QoS) level, predicting the energy consumption of data centers (DCs), and improving the cloud service providers’ scalability. However, in cloud computing context workload prediction is a challenging issue and various schemes using machine learning, data mining, and mathematical methods to deal with this issue. This scheme presents an extensive literature review of the workload prediction schemes proposed in the literature to improve resource management in the cloud DCs. It first provides the required knowledge regarding the workload prediction context and presents a taxonomy of the workload prediction schemes according to their applied prediction algorithm. Moreover, the main contributions of these schemes are illustrated and their major advantages and limitation are specified. At last, the open research opportunities in the workload prediction field are focused and the concluding remarks are presented. © 2019, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.
In this manuscript, we review fractal calculus and random processes. Random variables and processes on totally disconnected fractal sets are defined. Random walks on fractal middle-ξ Cantor sets are suggested and corresponding variances are given which are power laws. The mean square stochastic calculus is generalized on fractal sets, which can lead to the standard case by setting dimension α = 1. Furthermore, we solve a fractal stochastic differential equation using the Frobenius method. Graphs are presented to give more details. © 2019, © 2019 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM) has been established as a valuable source of medicinal plants for the treatment of insomnia for thousands of years. Accordingly, oil extracts from plants' parts have been widely used to alleviate central nervous system (CNS) ailments including sleep disorders. A number of preparations have been recommended by TPM for the treatment of insomnia. Among them, an intranasal formulation containing oily macerates of Viola odorata L., Crocus sativus L. and Lactuca sativa L. stands out.In the present double-dummy, double-blind placebo controlled clinical trial, we aim to evaluate the effectiveness of a combination of violet oil, saffron oil, and lettuce seeds oil nasal drop compared with the placebo (sesame oil).Fifty patients with primary chronic insomnia were randomly assigned in TPM-treatment or placebo groups, received either two drops of the herbal oil or placebo into each nostril every noon and evening for 8 weeks. Before the study commencement and after 1, 4 and 8 weeks of treatment, Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaires were completed by all patients. The primary outcome measure was considered as any changes in ISI scores between the first visit and after 8 weeks. Changes in PSQI scores during the study and possible side effects were also assessed. The multicompound herbal oil was standardized using HPLC analysis and contained 0.02 mg/mL crocin and 4 μg/mL isoquercitrin.Our study revealed a significant reduction in the ISI and PSQI scores from baseline by the study endpoint (P≤0.01). The mean ISI scores in week 8 decreased significantly for the intervention group (P=0.001) and also the placebo group (P<0.01) when compared with baseline. Moreover, the use of hypnotic drugs in the intervention group was significantly reduced (P<0.001), while in the control group was maintained at baseline level.It seems that intranasal use of the multi-herbal preparation can be used to improve chronic insomnia and to reduce the dose of conventional hypnotic medications in insomniac patients.
Due to the growing concerns about the increasing release of consumer products to the environment, especially for defective electronic products, the management of the closed-loop supply chain (CLSC) is emerging. To do this, a chain consisting of a manufacturer, a retailer, and a collector is offered in a manufacturer-led Stackelberg game. Due to the presenting of some concepts in the model, which are provided by considering two categories of customers for primary and secondary goods, it is suitable for electronics supply chains. In order to coordinate between the members of the chain, a hierarchical revenue sharing (HRS) contract is introduced, which is suitable for some members of the chain where operate as a holding company. In the following, some numerical examples are applied to examine the applicability of the proposed models. The results of the sensitivity analysis on the main parameters of the problem indicate an increase in the profitability of all members in the coordination contract compared to the decentralized mode. Furthermore, customer sensitivity to price and quality has also inverse and direct impact to members' profitability, respectively. Each of the analyzes provides some in-depth managerial implications that can be considered for future research. Finally, another research result will explain the increase in the amount of return defective goods by the customer in the contract mode.
Abu al-Qasim Al-Zahrawi (936-1013 CE), also known in the West as Albucasis, was a great Arab physician and surgeon of the late 10
Epilepsy is a dynamic disease of neuronal networks and epileptic activity in the brain should be suppressed quickly in the shortest possible time with minimum control signal. Thus, a closed-loop feedback control by using the fixed-time integral super-twisting sliding-mode controller via an optogenetic method is employed for suppressing seizures in the Pinsky-Rinzel (PR) model as a dynamic model of the hippocampus CA3 region where epileptic seizures occur. The control signal is applied to the PR model through the ChR2 channel model in the form of light photons using the optogenetic method. The present study aimed to determine the controller robustness against parameter changes and disturbances in order to reduce the control time, approach the zero tracking error of the normal desired state in a fixed time, and finally, converge the epileptic state to the normal desired state.In order to apply the control signal to the Pinsky-Rinzel model in the optogenetic method, the dynamic model of the ion current generated by channelrhodopsin 2 (ChR2) as a light-sensitive protein model in the optogenetic method was first applied to the PR model. Then, a fixed-time integral super-twisting sliding-mode controller was designed for the system, which is the combination of PR and ChR2 models.After applying the proposed controller, the simulation results indicated that the control signal was -0.7 mV, the tracking error of the normal desired state could reach zero within 1.5 milliseconds, and the problems of singularity and chattering were solved.A reduction occurred in the control signal reduced regarding the objectives of the study and comparing the proposed controller with the classical sliding-mode controller. Thus, this method can produce a safe control input for brain. In addition, both types of sliding mode controllers are robust against the parameters variations and external disturbances. Thus, they are superior to non-robust and simple controllers. Finally, based on the results, the validity of the fixed-time integral super-twisting sliding mode controller is confirmed for epilepsy control.
The interaction between the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) plays a pivotal role in virus entry into the host cells. Since recombinant ACE2 protein has been suggested as an anti-SARS-CoV-2 therapeutic agent, this study was conducted to design an ACE2 protein with more desirable properties. In this regard, the amino acids with central roles in enzymatic activity of the ACE2 were substituted. Moreover, saturation mutagenesis at the interaction interface between the ACE2 and RBD was performed to increase their interaction affinity. The best mutations to increase the structural and thermal stability of the ACE2 were also selected based on B factors and mutation effects. The obtained resulted revealed that the Arg273Gln and Thr445Gly mutation have drastically reduced the binding affinity of the angiotensin-II into the active site of ACE2. The Thr27Arg mutation was determined to be the most potent mutation to increase the binding affinity. The Asp427Arg mutation was done to decrease the flexibility of the region with high B factor. The Pro451Met mutation along with the Gly448Trp mutation was predicted to increase the thermodynamic stability and thermostability of the ACE2. The designed therapeutic ACE2 would have no enzymatic activity while it could bear stronger interaction with Spike glycoprotein of the SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, decreased in vivo enzymatic degradation would be anticipated due to increased thermostability. This engineered ACE2 could be exploited as a novel therapeutic agent against COVID-19 after necessary evaluations.
In the present study, the various zeolites including hydrophilic Y zeolite, hydrophobic ZSM-5 zeolite and metal organic frameworks (MOFs) including MIL-101 and ZIF-8 were incorporated into the PLGA/chitosan nanofibers for controlled release of Paclitaxel anticancer drug against prostate cancer in vitro and in vivo. The synthesized nanoparticles and nanofibers were characterized using FTIR, XRD, SEM, BET and water contact angle analysis. The drug loading efficiency of nanofibers containing zeolites and MOFs indicated that the MOFs were more useful compared with zeolites for higher loading of Paclitaxel molecules. The Paclitaxel release behavior from nanofibers containing zeolites and MOFs were also examined. The MTT assay and DAPI staining analysis were used to determine the cytotoxicity and apoptosis effect of nanofibers containing Paclitaxel against LNCaP prostate cancer cell lines. The tumor inhibition rate in vivo was carried out to obtain the optimum nanofibrous formulation with maximum cell death percentage and tumor inhibition rate. The obtained results revealed the better activity of MOFs compared nanozeolites for higher loading of Paclitaxel drug into the nanoparticles and a more sustained release of drug from nanofibers containing MOFs.
This study aimed to make a comparison between the clinical laboratory-related factors, complete blood count (CBC) indices, cytokines, and lymphocyte subsets in order to distinguish severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases from the non-severe ones.Relevant studies were searched in PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science databases until March 31, 2020. Cochrane's Q test and the IOut of a total of 8557 initial records, 44 articles (50 studies) with 7865 patients (ranging from 13 to 1582), were included. Our meta-analyses with random-effect models showed a significant decrease in lymphocytes, monocyte, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, CD3 cells, CD19 cells, and natural killer (NK) cells and an increase in the white blood cell (WBC), neutrophils, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), C-reactive protein (CRP)/hs-CRP, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), ferritin, procalcitonin (PCT), and serum amyloid A (SAA), interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-2R, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interferon-gamma (INF-γ) in the severe group compared to the non-severe group. However, no significant differences were found in IL-1β, IL-17, and CD4/CD8 T cell ratio between the two groups.Decrease in total lymphocytes and lymphocyte subsets as well as the elevation of CRP, ESR, SAA, PCT, ferritin, and cytokines, but not IL-1β and IL-17, were closely associated with COVID-19 severity, implying reliable indicators of severe COVID-19.
Naringenin (NRG) has many health benefits including; anti-atherogenic, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and anticancer activity as well as improvement of lipid metabolism. However, its use is limited due to its low solubility and bioavailability.The aim of the present study was the preparation and optimization of NRG loaded novel lipid nanocapsules (LNCs) for improvement of NRG solubility and gut permeability.Studied variables included; Solutol® HS15 and NRG concentration and the ratio of cold diluent water to primary emulsion. The storage stability of the LNCs was evaluated for 32 days and the thermal studies were done by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The antioxidant properties of the NRG in LNCs were studied by measuring the 2,2- Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity. The enhancement of permeation of NRG by the LNCs from the intestine was evaluated by non-everted gut sac method.The optimized NRG-LNCs had a hydrodynamic diameter of 29.41±1.25 nm, low polydispersity index, and high entrapment efficiency of 99.25±2.31%. The LNCs could retain NRG radical scavenging activity, showed good storage stability, and significantly improved NRG solubility (69 fold) and permeation through non-everted rat intestinal sac (4.33 fold).LNCs of NGR enhance solubility and intestinal permeability of this flavonoid and may be useful in improvement of its bioavailability.
Bacteria induced sepsis is common in infants and children Staphylococcus aureus produces numerous exotoxins; like staphylococcal Toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST- 1) which stimulate the immune system by T cell activation and inflammation in various organs. Recent studies suggest that staphylococcal toxins; generally named super antigens (SAgs) may also have a significant role in the pathogenesis of some pediatric disorders especially in clinical presentation of sepsis and septic shock. This study was carried out in order to compare staphylococcal TSST- 1 (SAgs) in children with sepsis symptoms (and septic shock) with negative blood culture versus a control group.This cross sectional study was done during 2 years (2014 -2016) in two referral hospitals (Rasoul Akram and Bahrami hospitals) in Tehran, Iran. We selected 44 children )mean age of 4 years) who were admitted in pediatrics and PICUs wards with sepsis symptoms- /+septic shock. Forty five children (mean age of 3.9 years) were selected as a control group. All cases with blood samples were examined for TSST-1 (SAgs) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method in both case and control groups and results compared. Data were analyzed by SPSS-16software. Chi-square or Fisher test was used to compare variables. P-value < 0.05 was considered as a valuable tool.Positive blood cultures with other bacteria; Streptococcus pneumonia, Haemophilus influenzae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli were detected in 5 cases with negative TSST-1 in blood samples. S.aureus isolated from blood culture in 2 cases with positive TSST- 1.Positive TSST-1 (SAgs ) was detected in 6 cases (14% ) with negative blood culture for S.aureus , It was significantly higher in cases ( 14% vs. 2%;P value = 0.05).This study indicates the probable role of TSST-1(SAgs) in the progression of sepsis (and septic shock) in toxic children with negative blood culture for S.aureus. Anti-staphylococcal treatment is immediately required, especially in toxic children with related clinical presentation even in cases with negative blood cultures. Indeed, the clinical use against SAgs suppressants of downstream cell-destructive events might be helpful.
Septic thrombophlebitis of the Superior Mesenteric Venous (SMV) is rarely accompanied by appendicitis, and symptoms are atypical, so the diagnosis is commonly delayed, resulting in it is associated with high mortality. We report a case of neglected SMV septic thrombophlebitis is caused by appendicitis. The patient represented with fever, vague abdominal pain without rebound tenderness, and history of the consumption of contaminated water. Antibiotic initiated due to suspicious typhoid fever. Then typhoid fever was ruled out. Computed tomography (CT) scans revealed micro-abscess forming complicated appendicitis and the thrombus in SMV. The patient underwent a laparoscopic appendectomy, during which retrocecal gangrened perforated appendix with a 2×2 cm abscess was drained. Based on positive culture with ESBL organism meropenem was initiated. Appendectomy and treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics and anticoagulation led to a full recovery.
This study aimed to investigate the existence of phospholipase-A (PLA) activity in soluble L.major antigens (SLA) because of no reports for it so far. Liposomes were used as sensors to evaluate PLA activity. Liposomal SLA consisting of Egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC) or Sphingomyelin (SM) were prepared by two different methods in different pH or temperatures and characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and thin layer chromatography (TLC). Lipid hydrolysis led to the disruption of EPC liposomal SLA in both methods but the film method (FM) produced more stable liposomes than the detergent removal method (DRM). The preparation of EPC liposomal SLA at pH 6 via FM protected liposomes from hydrolysis to some extent for a short time. EPC liposomes but not SM liposomes were disrupted in the presence of SLA. Therefore, a phospholipid without ester bond such as SM should be utilized in liposome formulations containing PLA as an encapsulating protein.
The prevalence of infertility is increasing and worrisome. About 10 to 30% of infertility is classified as idiopathic or unexplained infertility (UI).