To explore the experiences of Iranian nurses working in pre-hospital emergency care services and the strategies used to manage of workplace violence.Pre-hospital emergency nurses are subject to workplace violence; however little research addresses their experiences, particularly related to their strategies in dealing with workplace violence.A descriptive qualitative study that involved nineteen male nurses who were working in pre-hospital services collected data using semi-structured interviews and analyzed it using qualitative content analysis.Data analysis yielded four descriptive categories including: no reaction to violence (tolerance and acceptance as common workplace conflicts), situational management (patient and scene management), confrontation (direct and indirect), and escaping the scene. Patient management was the dominant strategy used and had the best outcomes related to both patient and personnel safety.This study showed that pre-hospital nurses use different strategies to manage violence and patient management was a common and useful strategy for managing workplace violence. However, the pre-hospital nurses have little training, insufficient support, and are poorly prepared to manage workplace violence.The development of context-based guidelines, continuing education, better equipped ambulances that include medical and defense equipment, as well as better coordination of the police force in ambulance operations, can help to reduce workplace violence. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Loss of skin integrity due to injury, burning, or illness makes the development of new treatment options necessary. Skin tissue engineering provides some solutions for these problems.The potential of a biodegradable star-shaped copolymer [Poly(CL─CO─LA)-b-PEG] and penta-block copolymer hydrogel (PNIPAAm-PCL-PEG-PCL-PNIPAAm) was assessed for skin tissue engineering applications.Two copolymers were synthesized for cellular culture scaffolds and their mechanical properties were compared. The resulting star-shaped copolymer and thermosensitive penta-block copolymer were characterized using Fourier transform infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The crystallizability of the two copolymers was analyzed using X-ray diffraction. The resulting thermosensitive penta-block copolymer was evaluated by differential thermal analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis. Scanning electron microscopy and in vitro degradation of the polymer network in phosphate buffer solutions (pH 7.4) at 37°C were also examined. The pore size of the gels was calculated with Image Analyzer software. Finally, the cytotoxic, morphological, and gene expression effects of copolymers on the skin fibroblast were evaluated.The experiments showed that the PNIPAAm-PCL-PEG-PCL-PNIPAAm polymer with the right composition and the expected molecular weight was achieved. The hydrogel had less crystallizability compared with its precursors. The resulting thermosensitive hydrogel had a three-dimensional structure with interconnected pores that mimicked the extracellular matrix. The control of the degradability rate can be possible by weight percent changes. The pore size correlated with the polymer concentration in aqueous solution and the pore sizes of the 20 wt% hydrogel were better for fibroblast cultivation than those of the 10 wt% hydrogel. Cell proliferation on the 20% gel was more than that of the 10% gel. The hydrogel not only preserved the viability and phenotypical morphology of the entrapped cells but also stimulated the initial cell-cell interactions and proliferation of fibroblasts. The hydrogel did not influence cell conformation and this property of the polymer underlined its safety. Cells seeded on this copolymer showed a normal and spear shape and formed a focal adhesion with the hydrogel surface. Notably, the hydrogel increased collagen I α1 and collagen III mRNAs expression.Due to the low molecular weight and poor mechanical strength of the star-shaped copolymer, it was not considered for fabrication of the scaffolds for wound healing. The biodegradable, biocompatible, injectable and thermosensitive PNIPAAm-PCL-PEG-PCL-PNIPAAm hydrogel in 20 wt% demonstrated a desirable potential for future application as a cell scaffold in skin tissue engineering and wound healing.
This study used pedigree information and data collected from 1979 to 2012 at the Raeini Cashmere goat breeding station, located in Baft City in Kerman Province in southeastern Iran. Genetic and phenotypic parameters for early reproductive traits of breeding does, including total numbers of kids born at first kidding (LSB1), total numbers of kids weaned at first kidding (LSW1), total birth weight of all kids born at first kidding (LWB1), total weaning weight of all kids weaned at first kidding (LWW1), and age at first kidding (AFK), were estimated using a Bayesian approach via Gibbs sampling. Posterior means for heritability estimates of LSB1, LSW1, LWB1, LWW1, and AFK were statistically significant, with values of 0.12, 0.23, 0.17, 0.15, and 0.46, respectively. Low-to-moderate additive genetic variation was present for the studied reproductive traits. Estimated genetic correlations among LSB1, LSW1, LWB1, and LWW1 were statistically significant and ranged from 0.12 between LWB1 and LWW1 to 0.72 between LSB1 and LSW1. Corresponding phenotypic correlation estimates were also statistically significant and ranged from 0.04 between LWB1 and LWW1 to 0.55 between LSB1 and LSW1. Posterior means of genetic and phenotypic correlations between AFK and other studied traits were statistically significant only for LSB1 and LWB1. For LSB1, LSW1, LWB1, and LWW1, we conclude that genetic and phenotypic improvement in any of these traits in Raeini Cashmere does would favorably influence all of the other traits. However, does that first kidded at younger ages have smaller litters at birth and lower litter birth weights at their first parity.
In the present study, the synthesizing of silver@reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite, through a facile precipitation method, is reported. In this method, in the synthesizing step, reduced graphene oxide was applied as a support, silver acetate as a precursor of Ag
Rivers, as the most prominent component of water resources, have a key role to play in increasing the life expectancy of living creatures. The essential characteristics of water pollutants can be described by water quality indices (WQIs). Hence, a ferocious demand for obtaining an accurate prediction of WQIs is of high importance for perception of pollutant patterns in natural streams. Field studies conducted on different rivers indicated that there is no general relationship to yield water quality parameters with a permissible level of accuracy. Over the past decades, several artificial intelligence (AI) models have been employed to predict more precise estimation of WQIs rather than conventional models. In this way, through the current study, multivariate adaptive regression spline (MARS) and least square-support vector machine (LS-SVM), as machine learning methods, were used to predict indices of the five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). To improve the proposed approaches, 200 series of field data, collected from Karoun River southwest of Iran, pertain to the nine independent input parameters, namely electrical conductivity (EC), sodium (Na
The gas sensing performance of graphene could be unusually improved by decoration of various atoms on its sheet based on experimental and theoretical calculations. Considering that, as yet, experimental development on boron decorated graphene (BG) is still very rare; in this investigation, we used first-principle calculations to study the electrochemical properties of pure graphene (PG) in addition to various coverages of BG upon adsorption of CO as a lethal gas. We observe stronger adsorption as well as higher charge transfer in terms of increasing the B-coverage (Θ) from CO to graphene. Moreover, adsorption energies are scaled substantially by the rate of coverage attributed to the role of co-adsorption. We also find that all adsorption sites for boron on the graphene substrate lead to the same values at high coverage limit. Our results confirm experimental data on the enhanced gas sensitivity of boron-doped graphene and show that B-decorated manipulation of the graphene layer is potentially very favorable for designing new sensors for toxic gas detection.
A voltammetric sensor is described for the determination of L-cysteine (Cys). A pencil graphite electrode (PCE) was modified with a Co(II)-Al(III) layered double hydroxide (LDH) to obtain a disposable, inexpensive and sensitive sensor for Cys. The LDH was electrochemically deposited on the PGE by chronoamperometry. The electrochemical behavior of the modified PGE was investigated by cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and linear sweep voltammetry. The structure and morphology of the electrodes surface were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. Experiments were conducted in optimal condition, scan rate of 10 mV. s
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) alludes to a cyclic advent of somatic and psychiatric symptoms that affect some women of reproductive age. Some studies demonstrated that vitamin D was associated with premenstrual symptoms.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin D supplementation in the treatment of PMS in vitamin D-deficient young girls.In this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial, 130 vitamin D-deficient girls aged 18-30 years, with PMS, were randomly divided into 2 groups and received a 2,000 IU vitamin D tablet (n = 64) or a placebo (n = 66) every other day for 12 weeks. At the beginning and at the end of week 12, serum 25(OH)-D, premenstrual symptoms, anthropometric indices, dietary intake, physical activity level, and sun exposure were evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 20. p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.Serum 25(OH)-D levels were significantly elevated in the vitamin D group in comparison to the placebo group after 12 weeks (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference between the 2 groups with regard to 14 symptoms of PMS after 12 weeks of intervention, even after adjustment for the baseline values of anxiety, weeping, and hypersomnia (for all symptoms, p > 0.05). However, in the vitamin D group, scores of nervousness (p < 0.001), job activity reduction (p = 0.01), social activity reduction (p = 0.01), fatigue (p < 0.001), and physical symptoms (p = 0.00) were reduced at the end of the intervention, and these changes were statistically significant compared to baseline. However, these alterations did not reach significance compared with the placebo group (p > 0.05).It seems that 2,000 IU vitamin D consumption in the vitamin D-deficient young girls with PMS every other day for 12 weeks had no significant impact on other PMS symptoms.Hintergrund: Unter dem Begriff des prämenstruellen Syndroms (PMS) wird das zyklische Auftreten somatischer und psychischer Beschwerden bei einem Teil der Frauen im gebärfähigen Alter zusammengefasst. Einige Studien belegen einen Zusammenhang zwischen der Vitamin-D-Versorgung und den prämenstruellen Symptomen. Ziel: Das Ziel dieser Studie war es zu beurteilen, wie die Supplementierung von Vitamin D im Rahmen der Behandlung des PMS bei jungen Frauen mit Vitamin-D-Mangel wirkt. Methoden: In dieser randomisierten, doppelblinden, placebokontrollierten Studie erhielten 130 junge Frauen im Alter von 18–30 Jahren, die an Vitamin-D-Mangel und PMS litten, nach Randomisierung in 2 Gruppen für 12 Wochen alle 2 Tage entweder 2’000 IU Vitamin-D-Tabletten (n = 64) oder Placebo (n = 66). Zu Studienbeginn und nach Ablauf der 12 Wochen wurden Serum-25(OH)-D, prämenstruelle Symptome, anthropometrische Kennzahlen, Ernährung, Grad der körperlichen Aktivität und Sonnenexposition evaluiert. Die statistische Auswertung erfolgte mit SPSS Version 20. Ein p-Wert < 0,05 galt als statistisch signifikant. Ergebnisse:Die 25(OH)-D-Werte im Serum waren in der Vitamin-D-Gruppe nach Woche 12 signifikant höher als in der Placebogruppe (p < 0,001). Im Hinblick auf 14 der untersuchten PMS-Symptome bestand nach dem 12-wöchigen Behandlungszeitraum kein signifikanter Unterschied zwischen den Gruppen, auch nach Bereinigung um die Ausgangslage bei den Parametern Angstgefühle, Weinen und Hypersomnie (bei allen Symptomen, p > 0,05). Die Scores für Nervosität (p < 0,001), Einschränkung der Arbeitsaktivität (p = 0,01), Einschränkung der sozialen Aktivität (p = 0,01), Erschöpfung (p < 0,001) und körperliche Beschwerden (p = 0,00) waren zwar am Ende des Behandlungszeitraums in der Vitamin-D-Gruppe niedriger als zu Studienbeginn, und diese Veränderungen waren statistisch signifikant. Im Vergleich zur Placebogruppe waren die Veränderungen jedoch nicht signifikant unterschiedlich (p > 0,05). Schlussfolgerung: Es scheint, dass die Zufuhr von 2,000 IU Vitamin D alle 2 Tage für 12 Wochen bei jungen Frauen mit Vitamin-D-Mangel und PMS keine signifikanten Auswirkungen auf die PMS-Symptomatik hatte.
The use of growth factors is considered to be one of the promising therapeutic strategies for multiple sclerosis (MS). Various studies have shown that platelet-rich plasma (PRP), a bioproduct of concentrated platelets, contains a variety of growth factors such as insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), epithelial growth factor (EGF), and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β). The therapeutic roles of PRP, with regard to a wide range of growth factors, on the nervous system have been shown in a limited number of studies. This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of PRP in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model of MS. PRP was prepared and intrathecally injected into the EAE mice. The EAE scoring test, the modified neurological severity score (mNSS) test, luxol fast blue and hematoxylin and eosin staining, real-time PCR, and western blotting were used for studying the effect of PRP on the motosensory function, remyelination, inflammatory cell infiltration, gliosis, and inflammatory cytokines expression. PRP administration in treated animals improved the functional abilities, remyelination, and oligodendrogenesis compared to the EAE mice. Furthermore, high numbers of microglia, astrocytes and infiltrating inflammatory cells and also the expression of proinflammatory cytokines were reversed after PRP therapy. In conclusion, these data suggest the PRP as a potential candidate for MS treatment.
Paclitaxel (PTX) is a natural terpenoid compound that has been broadly studied for its antitumor activities and widely used as a chemotherapy medication. The treatment efficacy of PTX is affected by its low aqueous solubility, thus causing a subject of extensive research. In recent years, synthetic molecular containers such as cucurbit[n]urils (CB[n]s) and their derivatives have been significantly developing because of their remarkable ability to bind hydrophobic and cationic drugs. Recent experimental studies have shown that acyclic CB[n]-type containers (aCB[n]s), as new derivatives of the family of CB[n]s, increase the solubility of insoluble pharmaceuticals. However, the nature by which the drug interacts with carriers remains largely unknown. In this study, molecular docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation were performed to understand how CB and aCB nanocontainers interact with PTX which affect its aqueous solubility. The results clarify how the flexibility of containers is influenced by their structure and how this affects their interactions with PTX. Our results reveal that although both CB and aCB are capable of binding to PTX, the affinity to aCB is higher than that of CB. It has also been shown that the binding to both CB and aCB is probably an entropy-driven process. This research supports the potential use of the cucurbit[n]urils and their acyclic derivatives as drug delivery systems.
Plants are vital for the wellbeing of humankind in a variety of ways. Some plant extracts contain antimicrobial properties that can treat different pathogens. Most of the world's population relies on medicinal plants and natural products for their primary health care needs. Therefore, there is a growing interest in natural products, medicinal plants, and traditional medicine along with a desire to design and develop novel plant-based pharmaceuticals. These plant-based pharmaceuticals may address the concerns of reduced efficacy of synthetic antibiotics due to the emergence of drug-resistant pathogens. In this regard, some plant extracts from black pepper (Piper nigrum) with antimicrobial properties, including piperine, have the potential to be used as natural dietary supplements together with modern therapeutic approaches. This review highlights possible applications of piperine as the active compound in the fields of rational drug design and discovery, pharmaceutical chemistry, and biomedicine. We discuss different extraction methods and pharmacological effects of the analyzed substance to pave the way for further research strategies and perspectives towards the development of novel herbal products for better healthcare solutions.
The Kutcher Adolescent Depression Scale (KADS) has been studied across Canada and some other countries during the past almost 15 years. The scale is a self-report tool to diagnose and monitor clinical depression in adolescents. A brief review of previous studies on KADS showed the lack of evaluation of KADS fairness/equivalence in measuring depression among identified groups.To examine the psychometric properties and measurement invariance of the KADS, responses of 407 participants were analyzed using item response theory (IRT) and ordinal logistic regression (OLR). Relevant measures of effect size were utilized to interpret the results.Findings of the parallel factor analysis confirmed unidimensionality of the KADS and the partial credit IRT model found to be the best fitting model for analyzing the scale. OLR analysis detected three items across gender and one item across marital status to function differentially. An assessment of effect sizes implied negligible differences for practical considerations.A note of caution is necessary with respect to interpreting results of measurement invariance across Gender. The sample analyzed in this study was predominantly female and this might have affected our findings. A similar analysis with a more balanced sample is recommended.This study was a significant step towards providing theoretical and practical information regarding the assessment of depression among adolescents by presenting adequate evidence regarding the psychometric properties of KADS-11. Future studies may look at different methods for assessing invariance and different groups for strengthening conclusions with respect to the KADS.
The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and characteristics of auras in patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) and to characterize the patients' historical and clinical risk factors that may be associated with such manifestations.In this retrospective database study, all patients with PNES, who were investigated at Shiraz Comprehensive Epilepsy Center at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, from 2008 until 2018, were studied.During the study period, 258 patients were investigated. One hundred and seventy-three patients (67.1%) reported having auras. Auras were associated with multiple variables, including sex ratio, history of head injury, ictal injury, and taking antiepileptic drugs, in univariate analyses. We then performed a logistic regression analysis, assessing these four variables. The model that was generated by the regression analysis was significant (p = 0.0001) and could predict the possibility of auras in 72% of the patients. Within the model, sex ratio (OR: 0.498; 95% CI: 0.282-0.878; p = 0.01) and a history of head injury (OR: 0.096; 95% CI: 0.020-0.465; p = 0.004) retained their significance.Patients with PNES may frequently report auras including some auras which are often seen in patients with focal epilepsies; as a result, they are at great risk of receiving wrong diagnosis and unnecessary treatments. Health care professionals involved in the management of patients with seizures should be aware of this risk and prescribe an antiepileptic drug only after making a definite diagnosis of epilepsy in a patient with a paroxysmal event.
Three Bortezomib (BTZ) liposomal formulations including of HSPC/Cholesterol/DSPE-mPEG2000 (F1), HSPC/DSPG/Cholesterol (F2), and HSPC/DSPG/Cholesterol/DSPE-mPEG2000 (F3) were prepared and characterized. Results demonstrated that the size of formulations ranged 72-92nm. The DSPE-mPEG2000 containing formulations (F1 and F3) had higher BTZ encapsulation compared to F2 formulation. The size of the liposomal formulations increased slightly when stored at 4°C for six-month, the zeta potential of formulations remained constant. There were no significant differences in the release properties BTZ from liposomal formulations in pH7.0; however, in acidic pH of 5.5 the release of BTZ from F1 and F3 was higher than F2. Three formulations cytotoxicity studies demonstrated IC50 values more than free BTZ on all cell lines examined. Evaluation of antitumor activity in mice bearing C26 colon carcinoma and B16F0 melanoma tumors showed that all the designed liposomal formulations have higher efficacy compared to free BTZ. In tumor models, F2 was more effective than the F1 and F3. Our findings indicated that F2 considerably increased the therapeutic efficacy of BTZ, which promises new formulation with the potential use in clinic and merits further investigation.
Neonatal administration of MK-801 (NMDA receptor antagonist) results in schizophrenia-like behaviors in rodents. Berberine (BBR) is a herbal alkaloid, which shows many neuroprotective properties in neurodegenerative diseases. The present study was designed to clarify whether systemic administration of BBR improves motor and cognitive disturbances induced by MK-801 treatment. Male Wistar rat pups were treated with intraperitoneal administration of saline (1 ml/kg) as a control group, MK-801 (1 mg/kg), BBR (20 mg/kg) and BBR (20 mg/kg) plus MK- 801 (1 mg/kg). Treatments were administered on postnatal day (P) 6-10 for once daily. To assess motor learning, coordination as well as spatial learning and memory, behavioral evaluation was performed at P55-60, using the rotarod, open field, and Morris water maze paradigm. MK-801 injection led to motor perturbations in both the open field and accelerating rotarod tests, which were restored by BBR. Also, BBR improved learning impairments, although it had no significant effect on the Probe test. Taken together, it can be concluded that BBR produces a neuroprotective effect in rats with MK-801-associated behavioral deficits. Given that the MK-801 exposure demonstrates an animal model of schizophrenia, we suggest that timely BBR administration may act as a potential treatment in schizophrenic patients.
Wilms tumor is an embryonic renal cancer that typically presents in early childhood and accounts for 7% of all pediatric cancers. Different genetic alterations have been described in this malignancy, however, only a few of them are associated with a majority of Wilms tumors. Alterations in DNA methylation, in contrast, are frequent molecular defects observed in most cases of Wilms tumors. How these methylation alterations are established in this tumor is not yet completely clear. The recent identification of the molecular actors required for the epigenetic reprogramming during embryogenesis suggest novel possible mechanisms responsible for the DNA methylation defects in Wilms tumor. Here, we provide an overview of the DNA methylation alterations observed in this malignancy and discuss the distinct molecular mechanisms by which these epimutations can arise.
Herein, we investigated the efficacy of liposomes for the topical delivery of miltefosine (ML) to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Liposomes containing varying concentrations of ML (0.5, 1, 2 and 4%) were prepared and characterized by their size and entrapment efficiency. The liposome diameters were between 100-150 nm. The penetration of ML from liposomal formulations through and in the skin was assessed using ex-vivo Franz diffusion cells fitted with mouse skin at 37 °C for 24 h. Data indicated that Lip-ML-4% showed the highest percent of retention across mouse skin (82 %). In vitro promastigote and amastigote assays showed that ML and Lip-ML inhibit the growth of parasites either in the culture medium or intracellularly. Lip-ML formulations were topically applied twice a day for 4 weeks to the skin of BALB/c mice infected with L. major. Results showed a significantly (p < 0.001) smaller lesion size in Lip-ML-2 and 4% when compared to controls. At week 8 post-infection, the number of parasites was higher in Lip-ML-0.5% compared to Lip-ML-2 and 4%, however, the difference was not significant. At week 12, the splenic parasite burden was significantly (p < 0.001) lower in mice treated with different Lip-ML formulations when compared to controls. The lesion parasite burden was significantly (p < 0.001) lower in mice treated with either Lip-ML-2 and 4% compared to Lip-ML-0.5% at week 12 post-infection. The results suggested that topical Lip-ML-4% showed optimal ex-vivo penetration and in vivo anti-leishmanial activity against CL caused by L. major when compared to ML cream and other liposomes and thus, merits further investigation.
In the terrestrial ecosystems, perennial challenges of increased frequency and intensity of wildfires are exacerbated by climate change and unplanned human activities. Development of robust management and suppression plans requires accurate estimates of future burn probabilities. This study describes the development and validation of two hybrid intelligence predictive models that rely on an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and two metaheuristic optimization algorithms, i.e., genetic algorithm (GA) and firefly algorithm (FA), for the spatially explicit prediction of wildfire probabilities. A suite of ten explanatory variables (altitude, slope, aspect, land use, rainfall, soil order, temperature, wind effect, and distance to roads and human settlements) was investigated and a spatial database constructed using 32 fire events from the Zagros ecoregion (Iran). The frequency ratio model was used to assign weights to each class of variables that depended on the strength of the spatial association between each class and the probability of wildfire occurrence. The weights were then used for training the ANFIS-GA and ANFIS-FA hybrid models. The models were validated using the ROC-AUC method that indicated that the ANFIS-GA model performed better (AUC
Chondroitinase ABC I (cABC I) can degrade inhibitory molecules for axon regrowth at the site of damage after spinal cord injury (SCI). One of the main problems in the practical application is the possibility of structural changes that lead to the inactivation of the enzyme. In current work, three variants of cABC I was designed and constructed by manipulation of a short helix conformation (Gln
It is well established that there is an association between chronic pain and depression.The present study aimed to identify whether pain catastrophizing and spiritual well-being may influence depression in chronic pain patients when other variables are controlled for (sociodemographic characteristics and pain intensity). Furthermore, it investigated possible mechanisms by which spiritual well-being can influence depression in these patients.The present study employed a cross-sectional design.This study was performed with a convenience sample of 300 consecutive patients with different types of chronic pain (defined as recurrent or persistent pain over >3 months), referred to clinics affiliated with Shiraz university of Medical Sciences between March and October 2017.Patients completed validated self-report questionnaires: Spiritual Well-being Questionnaire, Patient Health Questionnaire, Pain Catastrophizing Scale, and Numeric Rating Scale.Hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated that a significant portion of the variance in depression scores can be explained by catastrophizing and spiritual well-being. In Multiple Mediation Procedure, pain catastrophizing could negatively mediate the relationship between spiritual well-being and depression when controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and pain intensity.The findings add some evidence to further support the influence of spiritual well-being on depression levels through diminished pain catastrophizing. The present results could help clinicians to determine which variables should be emphasized for a successful treatment of depression in pain patients. Clinical interventions that increase meaningfulness and purpose in life may allow patients with chronic pain to overcome the maladaptive cognitions associated with pain, thereby reducing depressive symptoms.