In the present study, ZnO nanoparticles were anchored on a magnetic core/shell structure (SiO
Sub-inhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of antibiotics reflect the conditions bacteria encounter in tissues and the natural environment. Sub-MICs of antibiotics can induce stress and alter the expression of different bacterial genes. Bacteria react to stress conditions using different mechanisms one of which is Toxin-Antitoxin (TA) systems. This study investigated the expression of TA system genes under oxidative and antibiotic stresses in Klebsiella pneumoniae.To determine the effects of sub-MICs of gentamicin, nalidixic acid, and ceftazidime, as well as certain concentrations of HOur results revealed the reduced K. pneumoniae growth in the presence of sub-MICs of antibiotics and 5 mM HAlthough the exact role of the TA systems in response to stress is still unclear, our study provided information on the effect of the type II TA systems under the oxidative and antibiotic stress conditions.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common demyelinating disease which mainly impacts the integrity of central nervous system (CNS). MS etiology is not clearly known but genetic, environmental factors and immune system are the most frequently explored risk factors. Adaptive immune responses have a critical role in MS pathogenesis in which auto-reactive T-cells and autoantibodies are main orchestrators. Immune responses are modulated by inhibitory molecules which regulates adaptive system activation and hemostasis interface. These molecules suppress immune responses through inhibition of cytokine secretion and T cell proliferation and subsequently reducing the inflammation and respective damage. Therefore the critical role of inhibitory molecules in regulating the healthy and safe immune responses make them very attractive target for immunotherapy. In this review paper, the role of inhibitory molecules expressed on the various immune cell types in MS pathogenesis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) animal model will be summarized.
Spinal masses can be diagnosed by clinical and radiographic examinations. Infrequently, pseudotumors may be due to retained masses after surgical interventions. In fact, these spinal or paraspinal expansions are caused by iatrogenic foreign bodies. Pseudotumors are mentioned as textilomas. We present a case of a patient with a history of lumbar diskectomy in the L2-L3 segments performed in 2017. A 53-year-old woman was admitted with the complaint of persistent mechanical lower back and leg pain since 2 months ago. There are no specific clinical and paraclinical manifestations for retained surgical foreign body. The number of cases of textilomas associated with spinal surgery are few in comparison with abdominal or thoracic interventions. It is better to integrate textiloma in the differential diagnosis of soft tissue masses in the paraspinal region with past surgical history. While definite treatment of textilomas is surgical elimination of the foreign body, exact evaluation of surgical site before its closure is essential to prevent these cases.
Streptococcus pneumoniae is the main cause of diseases such as meningitis, pneumoniae and sepsis, especially in children and old people. Due to costly antibiotic treatment, and increasing resistance of pneumococcus, developing high-efficient protective vaccine against this pathogen is an urgent need. Although the pneumoniae polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) and pneumonia conjugate vaccines (PCV) are the efficient pneumococcal vaccine in children and adult groups, but the serotype replacement of S. pneumoniae strains causes the reduction in efficacy of such vaccines. For overcoming the aforesaid drawbacks epitope-based vaccines are introduced as the relevant alternative. In our previous research, the epitope vaccine was designed based on immunodominant epitopes from PspA, CbpA antigens as cellular stimulants and PhtD, PiuA as humoral stimulants. Because the low immunogenicity is the main disadvantage of epitope vaccine, in the current study, we applied coiled-coil self-assembled structures for developing our vaccine. Recently, self-assembled peptide nanoparticles (SAPNs) have gained much attention in the field of vaccine development due to their multivalency, self-adjuvanticity, biocompatibility, and size similarity to pathogen. In this regard, the final designed vaccine is comprised of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) epitopes from PspA and CbpA, helper T lymphocytes (HTL) epitopes from PhtD and PiuA, the pentamer and trimmer oligomeric domains form 5-stranded and 3-stranded coiled-coils as self-assembled scaffold, Diphtheria toxoids (DTD) as a universal T-helper, which fused to each other with appropriate linkers. The four different arrangements based on the order of above-mentioned compartments were constructed, and each of them were modeled, and validated to find the 3D structure. The structural, physicochemical, and immunoinformatics analyses of final vaccine construct represented that our vaccine could stimulate potent immune response against S. pneumoniae; however, the potency of that should be approved via various in vivo and in vitro immunological tests.
Adenosine deaminase is a critical enzyme in purine metabolism that regulates intra and extracellular adenosine concentrations by converting it to inosine. Adenosine is an important purine that regulates numerous physiological functions by interacting with its receptors. Adenosine and consequently adenosine deaminase can have pro or anti-inflammatory effects on tissues depending on how much time has passed from the start of the injury. In addition, an increase in adenosine deaminase activity has been reported for various diseases and the significant effect of deaminase inhibition on the clinical course of different diseases has been reported. However, the use of inhibitors is limited to only a few medical indications. Data on the increase of adenosine deaminase activity in different diseases and the impact of its inhibition in various cases have been collected and are discussed in this review. Overall, the evidence shows that many studies have been done to introduce inhibitors, however, in vivo studies have been much less than in vitro, and often have not been expanded for clinical use.
By growing urban population, Iran faces numerous environmental issues and solid waste management is on the top of these problems. Studies showed that a daily average of 700-1000 g of wastes are produced per person in Iran, in which organic waste accounts for a significant amount. On the other hand, hospital waste represents a part of the wastes, which need careful consideration from the environmental point of view. In the present study, the amount, composition, and management of urban and hospital wastes were evaluated in 7 Iranian metropolises, which account for about 30% of the population and produce about 35% of the country wastes. Based on prior surveys, landfill method is the current main method for waste management in these cities, which is generally not completely sanitary and therefore causes many environmental problems. The other common methods for waste management in these cities are composting of organic wastes, and the use of waste conversion methods to energy. However, the latter is ongoing only in Tehran which also includes some limitations. Therefore, the study also evaluated the future perspectives and feasibility of waste-to-energy conversion as a promising economic route for waste disposal.
The effects of feeding corn steep liquor (CSL; 420 g/kg crude protein, DM basis) along with different cereal grains on performance, digestibility, blood metabolites, ruminal fermentation, and carcass characters of growing lambs were evaluated. The constant amount of CSL was included in basal diet (100 g/kg, DM basis) and grain sources as experimental treatments were as follows: (1) corn grain (CG), (2) barley grain (BG), or (3) wheat grain (WG). The eighteen individually fed Farahani lambs averaging body weight 32 kg were allocated in completely randomized design (6 lambs/each) in a 9-week trial. The results showed that the greatest intake and gain were found in lambs fed CG in contrast to others. Nitrogen intake was constant among diets; however, the greatest nitrogen efficiency was found for corn grain-fed animals. Digestibility of nutrients were reduced in WG-fed animals in comparison with other grains. Ruminal proportions of propionate and butyrate were reduce in WG-fed lambs. The CG-fed animals displayed greater blood glucose and lower BUN concentrations compared with others. The greatest aspartate aminotransferase concentration as well as the greatest liver fat deposition suggested a dysfunction in liver performance in WG-fed animals. Except than that of a tendency for increment in dressing percentage in CG-fed lambs, no carcass character was differed among treatments. In conclusion, results revealed that feeding liquid protein source (CSL) is recommendable when it has been fed along with corn grain in comparison with barley or wheat grains in growing lambs.
Studies have indicated a possible role for serotonin transporter protein (SERT) in the pathophysiology of inflammatory skin disorders. This study was aimed to determine the expression of SERT in the skin of patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) and its relation to depression and anxiety. In this case-control study, 30 CSU patients and 30 healthy controls were evaluated with skin biopsies to evaluate the expression of the SERT protein based on histopathologic findings. Beck depression and anxiety inventories were used to investigate depression and anxiety in the case group. Data were analyzed by SPSS software. P values < 0.05 were considered significant. The case group showed significantly higher percentage of stained cells (P < 0.0001) and intensity of SERT expression (P < 0.0001) compared with the control group. The patients with uncontrolled CSU showed significantly higher percentage (P < 0.002) and intensity (P < 0.006) of SERT expression, compared with those with controlled CSU. The intensity of SERT expression in CSU patients had no significant correlation with the severity of depression, but was significantly correlated with the severity of anxiety (r = 0.555; P = 0.001). The percentage of stained cells was significantly correlated with the severities of depression (r = - 0.433; P = 0.017) and anxiety (r = 0.528; P = 0.003). The SERT expression in patients with CSU was higher compared with controls, which can demonstrate the role of serotonin in the pathogenesis of this disease. This higher SERT expression is correlated with the severity of the disease.
The recombination activating genes, including RAG1 and RAG2, are essential for V(D)J somatic recombination in lymphocytes. Leaky severe combined immunodeficiency disorder (SCID) is characterized by normal or intermediate T cells and normal to absent B cells associated with partial T cell and B cell dysfunction. We present a newly found RAG1 deficiency in a 21-year-old boy with leaky SCID. Immunoglobulin levels, flow cytometry, and whole exome sequencing (WES) were evaluated. Flow cytometric analysis revealed a decreased number of CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T cells, and B cells whereas NK cell counts were normal. Immunoglobulin levels were also decreased. The WES revealed a newly found homozygous mutation of RAG1 gene (NM_000448: exon 2: c.C2275T). Atypical features, including leukopenia, candidiasis, and low lymphocyte counts in patients with late-onset combined immunodeficiency disorders (CID) such as leaky SCID due to RAG1 deficiency may result in misdiagnosis and inadequate therapy instead of adopting the curative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in these patients.
Despite the promise of immunotherapy for gastric adenocarcinoma, choices for the selection of effective antigenic targets are very limited. Previously published data and our own in-house computational analysis have suggested that ANTXR1 is a potential target, simultaneously expressed in malignant tumor cells and the endothelial cells of the tumors. However, the expression pattern of ANTXR1 protein in clinical samples of gastric adenocarcinoma has not been fully evaluated.Using immunohistochemistry (IHC), we recorded the percentage of ANTXR1 positive cells separately in tumor cells and endothelial cells in the primary tumor, non-tumor gastric tissue adjacent to the primary tumor, and tumor in metastatic sites of 140 gastric adenocarcinoma patients. We also evaluated the association of ANTXR1 expression with the Lauren histological classification of the primary tumors, the patient's history of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, and the patient's overall survival.ANTXR1 was expressed in a mean of 73.89 ± 30.12% of tumor cells and 13.55 ± 20.53% of endothelial cells in the primary tumors. Intestinal adenocarcinomas had lower ANTXR1 expression in the tumor cells and higher ANTXR1 expression in the endothelial cells of the tumor regions, and a history of neoadjuvant therapy was associated with increased ANTXR1 expression in the endothelial cells of the tumor regions. Finally, above median expression of ANTXR1 in the tumor cells of the tumor regions was associated with significantly lower overall patient survival.Our findings suggest that ANTXR1 is a promising candidate for preclinical and clinical evaluation for gastric adenocarcinoma immunotherapy.
A two-dimensional (2-D) metasurface design for backward leaky wave suppression in microwave regime is proposed based on the theory of holography. The so-called Rabbit's ears phenomenon describes that the backward mode in the reference wave plays the destructive role and makes the holography principle to behave properly mainly in an only narrow frequency interval. Here, we explore the utilization of the surface wave reflectors to suppress the backward mode to achieve wide-band holograms. Therefore, the reference wave form is manipulated by the choice of various reflector shapes and some providing forward mode dominant reference wave are analyzed and simulated. The less backward mode participates in the reference wave; the wider operation frequency range is obtained. With the canceled Rabbit's ears phenomenon, variations in the reference wave frequency cause elevation angle scan. The results provide general insights into relation of the Rabbit's ears phenomenon and the object wave accuracy in frequencies except the design frequency. The idea is also applied to multiple object wave holograms. The concept is verified using both electromagnetic full-wave simulations and experimental measurements.
Conventional machines rely on rigid, centralized electronic components to make decisions, which limits complexity and scaling. Here, we show that decision making can be realized on the material-level without relying on semiconductor-based logic. Inspired by the distributed decision making that exists in the arms of an octopus, we present a completely soft, stretchable silicone composite doped with thermochromic pigments and innervated with liquid metal. The ability to deform the liquid metal couples geometric changes to Joule heating, thus enabling tunable thermo-mechanochromic sensing of touch and strain. In more complex circuits, deformation of the metal can redistribute electrical energy to distal portions of the network in a way that converts analog tactile 'inputs' into digital colorimetric 'outputs'. Using the material itself as the active player in the decision making process offers possibilities for creating entirely soft devices that respond locally to environmental interactions or act as embedded sensors for feedback loops.
Clinical evidence suggests the beneficial effects of Berberine (BER) on inflammatory markers. However, these results are controversial. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the effects of BER on C-reactive protein (CRP) using clinical trials in adults.Systematic review and meta-analysis.We searched randomized controlled trials in PubMed and Scopus up to November 2018. The mean differences (MD) and confidence interval (CI) of CRP (mg/L) concentrations were pooled with a random- or a fixed-effects model depending on the results of heterogeneity tests.Of 1242 studies identified, 5 were included in the meta-analysis. Pooled analysis showed that serum levels of CRP were decreased after BER supplementation (MD:-0.64 mg/L, 95% CI(-0.67 to -0.61) P < 0.001)) without any significant heterogeneity (IThis meta-analysis showed BER supplementation may ameliorate the state of chronic inflammation. Patients with cardiovascular disease and diabetes are two important groups which may benefit from BER supplementation. Further well-designed investigations with larger samples are needed to ascertain the long-term effects of BER on chronic inflammation.
To assess the prevalence of and factors related to complementary and integrative medicine (CIM) use among multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, using a translated and adapted version of a standard international questionnaire.International complementary and alternative medicine questionnaire (I-CAM-Q) was used. A cross-sectional study was done to assess the prevalence of and factors associated with CIM use among MS patients in Southern Iran. Patients who were randomly selected from MS registry center, were interviewed via phone calls.Three hundred patients were enrolled in the study; 69% of them were female. Their mean age was 36.6±8.53 years and the mean duration of the disease was 5.6 ± 4.22 years. In all, 99.3% (95% CI) of the patients had used at least one type of CIM. Herbal medicines and dietary supplements were the most commonly used CIM type (97.3%; 95% CI). Praying was the most common modality among all CIM subgroups (81.3%; 95% CI). Long term illness (MS) was selected as the main reason for the last use of all CIM types. Having non-tertiary education and having sequel due to MS were related to visiting a CIM provider (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.22-4.43), (AOR = 2.67, 95% CI = 1.47-4.83) respectively. Being female was related to the use of self-help practices (AOR = 3.41, 95% CI = 1.5-7.72).There is a high prevalence of CIM use among MS patients. Therefore, patient- physician communication about CIM use should be emphasized.
The present study aimed to evaluate the possible effect of grounded flaxseed and flaxseed oil on serum levels of inflammatory markers, metabolic parameters, and the severity of disease in patients with UC.In this open-labeled randomized controlled trial, 90 UC patients were randomly assigned to one of the 3 groups for 12 weeks: grounded flaxseed (GF; 30 g/day), flaxseed oil (FO; 10 g/day) and control group. The weight, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, serum inflammatory markers (interleukin-6 (IL-6), interferon gamma (INF-γ), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), and Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR)), and fecal calprotectin were measured at the baseline and end of the study.Totally, 75 patients (43 men and 32 women) with a mean age of 31.54 ± 9.84 years participated in the present study. Comparing the change of the variables indicated a significant decrease in fecal calprotectin (P < 0.001), Mayo score (P < 0.001), ESR (P < 0.001), INF-γ (P < 0.001), IL-6 (P < 0.001), waist circumference (P = 0.02), Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP) (P < 0.001), and Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) (P < 0.001) and a significant increase in TGF-β (P < 0.001) and Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire-Short form (IBDQ-9) score (P < 0.001) in the GF and FO groups compared to the control. No difference was obvious between the FO and GF groups except for TGF-β.The present study showed that both flaxseed and flaxseed oil, attenuate inflammatory markers, disease severity, blood pressure, and WC. However, the effect of flaxseed on weight and BMI was not evident.
Fatigue is a common problem in modern-day life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Delphinium denudatum (Jadwar) on fatigue.This study was a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial between healthy normal university students. In each group, participants were given one capsule of either WEACURE® (containing 500 mg of Jadwar root powder) or placebo for 15 consecutive days. Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI) questionnaire was used before and after the intervention to evaluate different aspects of fatigue.A total number of 64 participants completed the study. Data analysis showed decrease in the scores of all five domains of fatigue in Jadwar group (13.31 ± 3.05-7.75 ± 2.66, 12.31 ± 3.55-7.63 ± 2.62, 12.22 ± 4.26-6.97 ± 2.06, 11.56 ± 4.21 to 7.28 ± 2.37, 12.91 ± 3.09-7.34 ± 2.13 in general fatigue, physical fatigue, reduced activity, reduced motivation, and mental fatigue domains, respectively) which was statistically significant (P value<0.0001). This situation was significantly superior to the placebo group. Prescribed dosage of WEACURE® capsule was well tolerated.As a complementary tonic agent, Jadwar have a potential to reduce fatigue in normal population. However, objective evaluation of its anti-fatigue effect should be further evaluated.
The aim of this study was to determine whether quercetin can reduce iron overload and inflammation in thalassemic patients.Eighty four patients were recruited to this study and randomly assigned to two groups: 42 patients received a 500 mg/day quercetin tablet and 42 others took a 500 mg/day starch placebo for 12 weeks. Demographic, anthropometric and biochemical evaluation were performed.ANCOVA analysis revealed that compared to the control group, quercetin could reduce high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (P = 0.046), iron (p = 0.036), ferritin (p = 0.043), and transferrin saturation (TS) (p = 0.008) and increase transferrin (p = 0.045) significantly, but it had no significant effect on total iron binding capacity (TIBC) (p = 0.734) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) (p = 0.310).Quercetin could ameliorate the iron status in thalassemia major, but its effect on inflammation is indistinctive.
The beneficial effects of green tea on regulating insulin sensitivity and preventing the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been identified.We aimed to investigate the effect of green tea on serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and biomarkers of oxidative stress in patients with T2DM.A systematic search was performed in the ISI Web of science, PubMed and Scopus to find articles related to the effect of the green tea on CRP, malondealdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in T2DM patients, up to June 2019. There was no language and time limitation. Meta-analyses were performed using both the random and fixed effects model where appropriate, and I2 index was used to evaluate the heterogeneity.Initial search yielded 780 publications. Eight articles with 614 T2DM patients were eligible. Following green tea consumption, CRP levels significantly decreased (weighted mean difference (WMD): -5.51 mg/dl, 95% CI: -9.18 to -1.83, p = 0.003) compared with the controlled group. Green tea consumption had no significant effect on plasma levels of TAC and MDA (0.02 mg/dl, CI: -0.06 to 0.10; -0.14 mg/dl, CI: -0.40 to 0.12; respectively).This systematic review and meta-analysis indicated that green tea significantly reduced the circulating levels of CRP, whereas, it had no significant effect on MDA and TAC. Overall, green tea can be considered as a healthy drink to reduce CRP levels in T2DM patients.
Paraquat (PQ) is widely used as a herbicide around the world. PQ intoxication causes liver disease mainly in mammals. N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) is a medication that has positive effects in reducing the liver intoxication caused by PQ. Here, after formulating a NAC noisome nanoparticle (NACNP), we compared the niosomes and NAC on liver toxicity caused by PQ. Thirty male rats were divided into 5 groups and were treated intraperitoneally with PQ and NAC and NACNP for 24 h. PQ group received 35 mg/kg/day of PQ, while NAC and NACNP groups were administered with 25 mg/kg/day of NAC and NACNP, respectively. In addition, 6 rats receiving saline solution were considered as control group. Serum and liver tissue samples were collected from all rats. Alanine (AST) and aspartate (ALT) aminotransferase levels, and oxidative stress biomarkers including total antioxidant capacity (TAC), lipid peroxidation (LPO), and total thiol groups (TTG) levels were determined. Histological samples were also analyzed using hematoxylin and eosin staining slides. PQ administration resulted in hepatic injury as evidenced by increases in serum AST and ALT levels (p < .001). NACNP decreased LPO, TAC, and TTG levels compered to PQ group in liver tissue. Treatment of animals with NACNP was significantly more effective than free NAC in reducing PQ-induced hepatotoxicity (p < .05). Histological evaluation showed that PQ caused tissue inflammation, which was reduced by NAC treatment. This reduction was stronger for NACNP. Given these results, the use of NACNP, compared to NAC, was more protective against the development of the PQ-induced liver toxicity.