The aim of this study is to identify, clone and express a Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis specific immunogenic antigen candidate, in order to develop better reagents for diagnosis and vaccines for the protection of the host. Therefore, MAP2191 gene (a member of MAPmce5 operon) from MAP, was isolated and characterized by Bioinformatics tools and in vitro experiments. Then, a novel Mce-whole protein encoded by MAP2191 gene was amplified and sub-cloned into E. coli. We tried to express the Mce/whole protein in different condition along with a positive expression control (pET28a-Mce/truncated plasmid that we know express well), to ensure that nothing is wrong regarding culture/induction condition. The level of the recombinant protein expression was analyzed by means of SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. Western blot analysis toward full-length MAP2191 protein and its truncation only demonstrated Mce/truncated protein. The concurrence of in-silico prediction of primary structure of MAP2191 protein results along with experimental results confirmed that expression of Mce/whole protein was affected by the hydrophobicity nature of this protein. Our data support the hypothesis that the presence of hydrophobic regions in protein structure can influence the level of recombinant protein expression. This stresses the importance of gene selection and the protein sequence checking of the hydrophobic content in any protein purification project in order to achieve a large amount of desirable proteins. © 2018 Shiraz University.
This paper investigates the effects of velocity gradients and secondary currents on distribution of the shear force between the walls and bed of rectangular open channels. This paper shows that neglecting the effect of secondary currents and assuming zeroshear division lines do not yield acceptable results. Then, accordingly, a method was introduced to determine the percentage of the total shear force acting on the walls and bed of rectangular open channels, taking both velocity gradients and secondary currents into account. Using the channel bisectors, along which there is no secondary ows effect, and orthogonal trajectories to isovels, along which there is no shear stress, the channel's crosssection was divided into three major subsections: Bed, wall, and shared areas. The geometry of each subsection was derived with respect to the location of the maximum velocity. The share of the bed and wall shear forces from the shared area were calculated afterwards. The results for bed and walls shear forces are in agreement with the experimental data containing an average relative error of less than 5% for regular ows and the ows carrying suspended sediment. This method also provides a physics-driven range for the wall and bed shear forces, which nicely covers the experimental data. © 2018 Sharif University of Technology.
In this note, we give reverses of Young inequality for numbers. Then we establish operator and matrix inequalities corresponding the obtained numerical inequalities. © 2018, Element D.O.O.. All rights reserved.
The reaction between 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid and Pb(NO3)2 in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and triethylamine with mechanochemical solid–solid and solid–gas processes results in formation of [Pb(1,4-BDC)(C2H5OH)(C2H5OH)]n (1) nanoflowers. This compound also recognized as MOF-70. The MOF-70 porosity did not maintain by heating up to 100 °C and converted to nonporous coordination polymer of [Pb(1,4-BDC)]n (2) with agglomerated nanoparticle morphology. Thus the pore destruction in 1 during removal of coordinated EtOH molecules and formation of 2 with higher thermal stability than 1 are two driving force during this irreversible conversion. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd
Richards’ equation is a nonlinear partial differential equation governing unsteady seepage flow through unsaturated porous media. This paper investigates applicability of radial basis function-based differential quadrature (RBF-DQ), as a meshless method, to simulate one-dimensional flow processes in the unsaturated zone under different initial and boundary conditions. Fourth-order Runge–Kutta scheme has been adopted for time integration. Results of solving three numerical examples using RBF-DQ are compared with those of analytical, numerical, and experimental solutions presented in the literature. The comparison indicates that RBF-DQ can provide more accurate results comparing with traditional FDM or FEM without the need to discretize the computational domain. Moreover, the merit of mesh-free characteristic in RBF-DQ makes it suitable not only for solving nonlinear problems but also for dealing with multidimensional problems since meshless methods are not restricted to dimensional limitations. A key parameter in utilizing multiquadratic approximation in RBF-DQ method is the user-defined shape parameter C, which may significantly affect solution accuracy. Thus, a sensitivity analysis has been conducted to study possible effects of shape parameter on achieved results. © 2018, Springer Nature B.V.
This study concerns with transverse vibrations of magnetically-thermally affected vertically aligned arrays of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) using nonlocal elasticity theory of Eringen. Using nonlocal Rayleigh and Timoshenko beam theories, both discrete and continuous versions of equations of motion are presented. In contrast to the discrete models, the continuous models do not suffer from huge time and labor costs for nanosystems with high population. The capability and efficiency of the continuous models in capturing the frequencies of the discrete models are displayed, and a reasonably good agreement is obtained. Subsequently, the influences of radius of SWCNTs, slenderness ratio, population, small-scale parameter, strength of magnetic field, and variation of the temperature on the fundamental frequency are explained and discussed. Additionally, the role of shear deformation on the obtained results is explained and the limitations of the nonlocal Rayleigh beam model are revealed. © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS
Background: Primary immunodeficiency disorders (PID) is a group of heterogeneous diseases mainly characterized by severe and recurrent infections and an increased susceptibility to lymphoproliferative, atopic, and autoimmune conditions. The clinical diagnosis should preferably be complemented by a genetic diagnosis. To date, PID-related reports from China seldom attempt to make a genetic test for their patients. Methods: Our study aimed to evaluate demographic data, clinical manifestations, and molecular diagnosis of PID patients from southern China. Moreover, by comparison with previous reports, we provide a picture of the current status of PID in mainland China. A total number of 160 pediatric PID patients (106 males and 54 females) were enrolled, and targeted next-generation sequencing was conducted using 269 PID-related genes and subsequently confirmed by Sanger sequencing and familial segregation analysis. Result: The autoinflammatory disease group was the most common subcategory of PID (20%), followed by immune dysregulation (17.5%) and combined immunodeficiencies (16.2%). Antibody deficiency disorders were identified in only 11.9% of the cohort. The putative causative gene was identified in 70 patients (43.8%), and an X-linked pattern was found in 45.7% of the genetically diagnosed patients. Conclusion: The current study provides the first collective study of PID phenotypes and genotypes in south China and provides a strong argument for the diagnostic application of targeted next-generation sequencing panels in patients with suspected PID. © 2018 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.
Chemical methods of enhanced oil recovery (CEOR) are applied for improving oil recovery from different kinds of oil reservoirs due to their ability for modifying some crucial parameters in porous media, such as mobility ratio (M), wettability, spreading behavior of chemical solutions on rock surface and the interfacial tension (IFT) between water and oil. Few decades ago, the surfactant and polymer flooding were the most common CEOR methods have been applied for producing the remained hydrocarbon after primary and secondary recovery techniques. Recently, more attention has been focused on the potential applications of the nanotechnology in enhanced oil recovery (EOR). For this purpose, many studies reported that nanoparticles (NPs) have promising roles in CEOR processes due to their ability in changing oil recovery mechanisms and unlocking the trapped oil in the reservoir pore system. This paper presents a comprehensive and up-to-date review of the latest studies about various applications of nanoparticles (NPs) within the surfactant (S), polymer (P), surfactant-polymer (SP), alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP) and low salinity waterflooding processes, which exhibits the way for researchers who are interested in investigating this technology. The review covers the effects of nanoparticles on wettability alteration, interfacial tension reduction and oil recovery improvement, and discusses the factors affecting the rock/fluid interaction behavior in porous media through the nanofluid flooding. © 2018 Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute
Metal contamination is a serious environmental concern in the Middle East. Herein, geochemical fractionation distribution and potential sources of thirteen metals (Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, Cu, Co, Cr, Ni, V, As, Hg, Pb and Cd) were investigated in sediments from ten coral reef Islands in the Persian Gulf, Iran. To properly assess availability and mobility of elements, enrichment factor (EF), pollution load index (PLI), pollution index (PI), contamination index (CI), sediment pollution index (SPI) and ecological risk assessment were provided. Sediment grain size showed an outstanding role in controlling the levels of potentially toxic inorganic elements (PTIEs). The highest values of total organic matter (TOM) were detected in Kharg and Lavan Islands. Different metals fractionation distribution was found across sites. As was noticed in carbonate (F2), exchangeable (F1), Fe-Mn oxy-hydroxide (F3), organic (F4) and residual (F5) fractions, Hg primarily associated with F2 and F1, whereas Pb and Cd with F2, followed by F1, F3, F5 and F4. Conversely, Ni and V accumulated in F1, suggesting their high mobility and bioavailability, and thus environmental risk to aquatic biota. All metals (except Al, Fe and As) had geological and anthropogenic sources. Based on modified risk assessment analysis, the sediments from Kharg, Lavan, Siri and Lark Islands showed medium adverse effects. Overall, results from this study corroborate that petroleum industry is the main source of pollution of PTIEs in the Persian Gulf, and offer a scientific basis for monitoring and preventing metal pollution in the environment. © 2018
The study of faunal remains from Kalehkoob, an archeological site in southern Khorasan, Sarayan, represents the first investigation of prehistoric vertebrates in the northern part of the Lut desert, in the east Iranian plateau. A vertebrate assemblage containing >200 specimens was found at various depths (155 cm to 595 cm) of an excavation trench. A combination of morphological and morphometric methods led to the identification of Artiodactyla, namely Bovidae (Ovis, Gazella, and Bos) and Perissodactyla, namely Equidae (Equus asinus and Equus caballus). Combined zooarcheological and sedimentological analyses points to three phases and two sub phases of depositional. Transition between the second phase and the first and third phases suggests that changes in faunal composition were potentially a response to different environmental conditions during each phase, such as a reduction of river water volume and humidity. Radiocarbon dating of bones from two depths, 155 cm (scapula) and 462 cm (horse tooth) from phases 1 and 2, respectively, provides ages of 3227–3060 cal BP and 5914–5749 cal BP for the deposit. Given the high chemical quality of both samples of scapula and tooth, δ 13 C and δ 15 N analyses were also conducted, suggesting the presence of arid environmental conditions. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd
This paper presents a novel multimodal training platform integrated with hand-over-hand (HOH) haptic guidance for dual-console surgical robotic systems such as the da Vinci Si system. The expert-in-The-loop (EIL) framework incorporates a fuzzy interface system in order to provide a trainee with adaptive authority over the procedure as well as hand-over-hand haptic guidance adjusted in real time based on the proficiency level of the trainee. The EIL expertise-oriented framework enables performance of a surgical procedure by an expert surgeon on a patient, while simultaneously providing a trainee at any stage of the motor-skills development with multimodal training without jeopardizing patient safety. Closed-loop stability of the system is investigated using the circle criterion and it is shown that the proposed architecture is unconditionally stable. Experimental evaluations are presented in support of the proposed platform through the implementation of a dual-console surgical setup consisting of the classic da Vinci surgical system (Intuitive Surgical, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA, USA) and the dV-Trainer master console (Mimic Technology, Inc., Seattle, WA, USA). To the best of our knowledge, the implemented setup is the first research platform for dual-console studies involving the classic da Vinci surgical system. © 2004-2012 IEEE.
The previous proposed models to describe the room temperature dynamic strain aging of twinning-induced-plasticity steels appear to be theoretically invalid in the case of lightweight grades. The proposed theory in the present work accentuates the high capability of the experimented dilute solid solution in progressive formation and refinement of the cell structures. The higher dislocation population in the cell-walls in comparison to that of cell-interiors is viable enough to increase the stress assisted drift and stimulate the sub-boundaries preferred sites to accommodate the solutes. The short-range dislocation core diffusion enables the cell-walls to assist the strain aging to occur. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd
In this paper, the ultimate boundary region of a financial risk system is studied through an optimization idea. For this system, the analytical expression of the ultimate boundary region is derived based on the optimization method and the Lagrange multiplier method. The ultimate bound which is useful in chaos synchronization is demonstrated through numerical simulations. Utilizing the bound obtained, a linear controller is proposed to achieve the chaos synchronization. All the numerical simulation results are in line with the theoretical analysis. © 2018
“International Msc Educational Programme in Environmental Management and Modelling” (GeoNetC) is a European Commission funded project under ERASMUS+: Higher Education – International Capacity Building programme (Project No 561967-EPP-1-2015-1-SE-EPPKA2-CBHE-JP). It began in October 2015 and ended in October 2018. Initiated by the Lund University and partners from the Middle East countries, the GeoNetC project is an ambitious project aiming to match labour market needs with geospatial education offer both in Europe and Middle East countries. The aim of this three-year project is to enable European universities to exchange best practices and innovation with each other and with Middle Eastern universities regarding the mismatch between Europe’s geospatial education and training and the geospatial education in Middle East countries. There is a growing need for well-trained students at all levels – vocational, bachelors, masters – in the field of geospatial technologies. Obviously there is a growing number of jobs available in land surveying, mapping data collection, data processing, data delivery and turning data into information in both European and Middle East countries. Through cooperation, all partners will improve the quality of their respective academic programs. The European partners will make their courses more attractive and well adjusted for students from the Middle East. As well, they will increase the general quality and add state-of-the-art learning components to their offerings, and the partners from the region will significantly increase the academic level and quality in the education they provide. There will be spin-offs into other subjects than environment/Geomatics, since both the pedagogic models developed (e.g. e-Learning) and communication and administrative tools can be used throughout the partner universities. Therefore, this partnership cooperation will be of great value to Partner Countries as well as to Programme Countries. A number of distance learning courses/modules are developed jointly by partner institutions in Europe and the Middle East. The main aim of the network is to promote the use of spatial information and earth observation for environmental management and modelling through capacity building and institutional development, via a network in which all partners would contribute from their own positions of strength. All 13 modules are following EU higher education standards regarding e.g. ECTS, and learning outcomes. The outcome of the project, in terms of courses/modules, will be freely used among the partners, with the possibilities of offering individual courses or a whole MSc programme, whether individually or together. All produced material was evaluated/quality controlled by an external evaluation group of independent experts within environmental management and modelling, higher education, as well as pedagogy. © 2018 The Author(s).
The genus Cercospora includes many important plant pathogens that are commonly associated with leaf spot diseases on a wide range of cultivated and wild plant species. Due to the lack of useful morphological features and high levels of intraspecific variation, host plant association has long been a decisive criterion for species delimitation in Cercospora. Because several taxa have broader host ranges, reliance on host data in Cercospora taxonomy has proven problematic. Recent studies have revealed multi-gene DNA sequence data to be highly informative for species identification in Cercospora, especially when used in a concatenated alignment. In spite of this approach, however, several species complexes remained unresolved as no single gene proved informative enough to act as DNA barcoding locus for the genus. Therefore, the aims of the present study were firstly to improve species delimitation in the genus Cercospora by testing additional genes and primers on a broad set of species, and secondly to find the best DNA barcoding gene(s) for species delimitation. Novel primers were developed for tub2 and rpb2 to supplement previously published primers for these loci. To this end, 145 Cercospora isolates from the Iranian mycobiota together with 25 additional reference isolates preserved in the Westerdijk Fungal Biodiversity Institute were subjected to an eight-gene (ITS, tef1, actA, cmdA, his3, tub2, rpb2 and gapdh) analysis. Results from this study provided new insights into DNA barcoding in Cercospora, and revealed gapdh to be a promising gene for species delimitation when supplemented with cmdA, tef1 and tub2. The robust eight-gene phylogeny revealed several novel clades within the existing Cercospora species complexes, such as C. apii, C. armoraciae, C. beticola, C. cf. flagellaris and Cercospora sp. G. The C. apii s. lat. isolates are distributed over three clades, namely C. apii s. str., C. plantaginis and C. uwebrauniana sp. nov. The C. armoraciae s. lat. isolates are distributed over two clades, C. armoraciae s. str. and C. bizzozeriana. The C. beticola s. lat. isolates are distributed over two clades, namely C. beticola s. str. and C. gamsiana, which is newly described. © 2018 International Mycological Association.
Background: Family physicians are in frequent contact with patients, and their contribution to oral health promotion programs could be utilized more effectively. We implemented an oral health care (OHC) educational seminar for physicians and evaluated its impact on their knowledge retention in OHC. Methods: We conducted an educational trial for primary care physicians (n = 106) working in Public Health Centers in Tehran city. We launched a self-administered questionnaire about pediatric dentistry, general dental, and dentistry-related medical knowledge and backgrounds. Physicians in intervention group A (n = 38) received an educational intervention (Booklet, Continuous Medical Education (CME), and Pamphlet), and those in group B (n = 32) received only an OHC pamphlet. Group C (n = 36) served as the control. A post-intervention survey followed four months later to measure the difference in the physicians' knowledge; the Chi-square test, ANOVA and linear regression analysis served for statistical analysis. Results: The intervention significantly increased the physicians' oral health knowledge scores in all three domains and their total knowledge score (p < 0.001). Those physicians who had lower knowledge scores at the baseline showed a higher increase in their post-intervention knowledge. The models showed no associations between the background variables and the knowledge change. Conclusion: The primary care physicians' OHC knowledge improved considerably after an educational seminar with a reminder. These findings suggest that OHC topics should be included in physicians' CME programs or in their curriculum to promote oral health, especially among non-privileged populations. © 2018 The Author(s).
The objective of this work is to compare two cavity receivers for a solar dish concentrator. The spiral and the conical cavities are investigated using a developed thermal model. The analysis is optical, thermal and exergetic for different operating temperatures and flow rates. The developed thermal model is combined with an optical tool in order to simulate properly the solar dish collector and it is validated for the case of the spiral absorber with experimental results. Every receiver is separated in the different coil and every coil is simulated separately in order to increase the model accuracy. Totally, 13 coils are used for the spiral design and 11 for the conical design. The location of the receiver in every case is optimized in order to achieve maximum optical efficiency. The results show that the conical design leads to a 1.38% increase in the optical efficiency due to the increased intercept factor. The thermal efficiency enhancement with the use of conical design is found to be 5.63% at 100 °C and 40.45% at 200 °C, while the exergy efficiency enhancement 6.67% at 100 °C and 42.06% at 200 °C. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd
Aloe vera has been cultivated for many centuries for its beneficial properties, finding application in a wide range of medical and health products. Nowadays, the research has also focused on an alternative use of Aloe vera which is related to environmental applications such as clean water technology/wastewater treatment process. In recent years, biosorption has been shown to be a cost-effective and efficient alternative method for removing various pollutants from wastewater and water. This work provides a comprehensive review on using Aloe vera waste biomass-based sorbents, as well as modified counterparts, for the removal of heavy metals, dyes and other pollutants from aqueous media. The discussed biosorbents have been grouped in five categories based on the treatment of the Aloe vera leaves. Adsorption mechanisms, in addition to the significant factors influencing sorption capability like physical and chemical properties of the adsorbent, initial concentration, initial pH and temperature of the solution, dosage and contact time, have been discussed in detail. Furthermore, the applied equilibrium and kinetic models have been also summarized. The history, taxonomy, botany, and applications of Aloe vera are also presented in brief. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd
Encoded by EEF1A1, the eukaryotic translation elongation factor eEF1α1 strongly promotes the heat shock response, which protects cancer cells from proteotoxic stress, following for instance oxidative stress, hypoxia or aneuploidy. Unexpectedly, therefore, we find that EEF1A1 mRNA levels are reduced in virtually all breast cancers, in particular in ductal carcinomas. Univariate and multivariate analyses indicate that EEF1A1 mRNA underexpression independently predicts poor patient prognosis for estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) cancers. EEF1A1 mRNA levels are lowest in the most invasive, lymph node-positive, advanced stage and postmenopausal tumors. In sharp contrast, immunohistochemistry on 100 ductal breast carcinomas revealed that at the protein level eEF1α1 is ubiquitously overexpressed, especially in ER+ , progesterone receptor-positive and lymph node-negative tumors. Explaining this paradox, we find that EEF1A1 mRNA levels in breast carcinomas are low due to EEF1A1 allelic copy number loss, found in 27% of tumors, and cell cycle-specific expression, because mRNA levels are high in G1 and low in proliferating cells. This also links estrogen-induced cell proliferation to clinical observations. In contrast, high eEF1α1 protein levels protect tumor cells from stress-induced cell death. These observations suggest that, by obviating EEF1A1 transcription, cancer cells can rapidly induce the heat shock response following proteotoxic stress, and survive. © 2018, The Author(s).
Recent empirical and conceptual work in data envelopment analysis (DEA) have emphasised its potential importance in highlighting the environmental performance of economic entities. Initial work in this emerging research area has focused on the separation of output factors into desirable and undesirable ones. In this paper, we describe recent developments in the modelling undesirable outputs. In particular, the modelling of undesirable outputs in the range adjusted measure (RAM) is investigated. We discuss some of the difficulties of RAM in assessing the environmental efficiency of decision-making units (DMUs) and develop a multiple objective DEA model to overcome these difficulties. The proposed multiple objective model is solved as a linear programming and its applicability as a mechanism for assessing environmental efficiency is demonstrated by evaluating the technical, ecological and process environmental quality efficiency scores of China’s provinces. © 2017, © Operational Research Society 2018.